Apr 09 2015

Living Dangerously with Chemicals

Published by under Electronics

There are several ways to create a PCB and one of those ways is called acid etching. This PCB fabrication method works by chemically removing unwanted copper from the board. Resistances are placed on the portions of the copper board that one wants to remain after the etching process.

Pcb fabricationOne chemical of choice is ferric chloride. This acid is usually a cheaper option than other chemical compounds used for etching. There are two types of this acid and one type is called hexahydrate ferric chloride. This type comes in a light yellow colored powder and is usually dissolved in water with about a tablespoon of salt for a clearer, easier inspection of the PCB when it is submerged in it. The other type is called anhydrous ferric chloride which is a green-brown colored powder. This is a more dangerous chemical and it is highly discouraged to be used but if one decides to, observe extreme caution when dissolving this in water as it creates a lot of heat. Never add water to the powder, add it to the water instead.

There is a chance that this chemical may not successfully etch the board, making it far from ideal for PCB fabrication. If this happens, one can add a small amount of hydrochloric acid and leave the board submerged in it for about two days. When using any of these etching chemicals, use a ceramic or a plastic container, be sure to use gloves and safety glasses when handling such chemicals as they can be damaging to the eyes and skin; also, avoid splashing at all costs.

Another acid of choice in PCB fabrication is sodium persulfate. This is a white-colored powder that is a good etching solution for copper printed circuit boards. This chemical has some advantages over ferric chloride and other similar copper-etching chemicals. Unlike ferric chloride, sodium persulfate does not stain clothes, skin, or containers. It leaves no residue in plain water and rinses quite easily. Its etching speed is faster and it maintains a good etching rate throughout its mixing life.

As to be expected though, this chemical also comes with disadvantages when compared with other etching chemicals. Sodium persulfate has a shorter mixing life (or, in a way, durability) when used in an etch tank; it has a maximum of three weeks regardless if it is being used or not. If ferric chloride triggers a potentially dangerous reaction with metals, sodium persulfate reacts in the same way upon coming into contact with natural fibers such as linen, cotton and wool.

In addition to those already mentioned, other chemicals can be used as etching agents for the PCB – these include hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid. Same with ferric chloride, a non-metallic container is needed for this as well. Mix two parts of hydrogen peroxide with one part hydrochloric acid; by doing that you’ll create a good etching agent. While etching with these chemicals, make sure that the area is well ventilated. In addition to this, acetone is needed to remove the resist from the PCB after etching. Compared to the other methods discussed, this may be the safest for etching the PCB with chemicals. However, extreme caution should still be observed.

When using any of these PCB fabrication methods, always remember to be safe. Be cautious when handling dangerous chemicals and be sure to prepare everything that is needed to keep the etching area secure. Also, follow the instructions very carefully, including those about the proper disposal of such chemicals. Keep in mind that any mistakes can cause serious damage not only to one’s surroundings but even to oneself.

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Mar 05 2015

HCG Diet Drops Bring Results For Weight Loss

Published by under Weight Loss

Weight loss and management is a hot button issue that many people are dealing with today. Some are finding that it’s harder to manage overall than they’d like, and some are finding solutions that seem to work very well. Finding a balancing act in regards to this is the key to sustaining the right path, and it’s not something that you should look at without focusing on a lot of different solutions overall. If you’re tired of searching, however, perhaps the best way to move forward is through the use of hcg diet drops and working with tried and true options that can deliver on the premise of weight loss as a whole.

hcg diet dropsThe first thing that you need to understand about losing weight is that it’s not something that happens overnight. It takes a great deal of time to work through the right options, and perhaps invigorate your lifestyle with the right parameters overall. It’s something that requires a bit of patience, and perhaps even some supplements to get you in the right process overall. Focusing on the right elements is something that is important, which is why it’s imperative that you take a step back and look at what is going to work best for you.

The Metabolism

You may have heard of this, and it’s a good thing. When your metabolism runs high, you will see a major push in regards to your overall well-being. You will drop weight, and you’ll have the body you want. However, if it is not acting right, or it is diminished due to age or other factors, you could have a hard time finding a way to lose weight and get that right position moving forward. Metabolic rate can be spiked, but it takes supplements like hcg diet drops, when you’re in a point of decline. Taking the supplement will not do all the work, but it will help guide your body to moving through the right motions.

The goal of weight loss is to channel the energy that can be created from fat cell burning into an all-day thing. That can be achieved through the drops, and adding exercise to the mix. When you exercise with weight training in mind, you can ensure that your body is burning calories at all times. Without burning calories at any given moment, you will not be able to withstand the necessary changes that you need to lose substantial weight. Metabolic rate helps with this, and that’s where the keys of hcg diet drops really are.

True Weight Loss

Sustainable weight loss is something that is hard to define within one or two purposes. In order to fully integrate the right relationship, you are going to want to look into how it can help with the balance needed to sustain your weight. Managing the weight you lose is tough at first glance, but it can be done with the help of exercise, nutritional supplements, and a steady diet. You want to have these elements in place in a very easy manner, so that it doesn’t seem like you’re sacrificing too hard to get to the right places. If you find yourself starving, or always trying to get more nutrients because you’re not eating right, then adjust to make sure that you are. It’s important that you have a balance between movement, exercise, and diet. Without all of these working together, you are not going to sustain the right elements to create weight loss that is going to last for a lifetime. In the end, all of this is a matter of balance, and when it’s done right, you can definitely gain serious leverage overall.

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Feb 02 2015

Tactics to Become One of the Best Motivational Speakers at Schools

Published by under Motivation

Motivational speakers have found schools a perfect venue to concentrate on. This brief article will give you tactics on how most great motivational speakers appeal and specialize to this niche market.

1. Immerse yourself in the teenagers’ world. Know more about their lifestyle and pop culture. Read what they usually read such as magazines and websites. Learn how they communicate and express their feelings. Connect with them through finding out how and what they think about, and most importantly, what they care about.

2. Your best source is yourself and your own experiences as a teenager. Times might have changed but there are still topics and aspects that are timeless and universal. The way you dress during your teen years might be different now but the way you express your feelings before such as through arts is still a medium used by most teenagers. Teenagers still worry about love, dating, social acceptance, relating to authority, avoiding embarrassment and making a transition from childhood to adulthood. Pull all these topics to a powerful presentation through drawing out from your experiences.

3. Never ever talk down to teenagers. The people around probably have told them a thousand times not to do this and that or they have been scolded all day long. You will catch their attention and at the same time become credible through showing humility and vulnerability.

4. Be genuine. Share insights and experiences that you truly believe. Avoid giving clichés. You are not one of them so avoid dressing or talking like them unless that is your true expression of your sensibility.

5. You must communicate with your target school in advance to know what is happening inside the campus. For instance, there is a basketball championship game or upcoming prom night. This will allow you to connect with your audience through your prepared materials.

6. Go to the decision makers – the student council advisors and activity directors to market your skills and services. These people are in-charge of making plan assemblies and inviting speakers.

7. Put a competitive price to yourself. Schools have smaller allotted budgets for speakers compared to big multinational companies. You have to really work double time if you are making a living out of becoming a speaker at schools. If you are after for a bigger salary or speaking engagement rate, schools are not the best place for you to use your skills.

8. Establish your network with other motivational speakers. Usually, a motivational speaker cannot conduct a session for a number of times in a year in a school. He can suggest someone who can do the job. Plus, if a motivational speaker’s schedule is fully booked, he can suggest an alternative speaker. Of course, you want these motivational speakers suggesting your name. The perfect way of cultivating relationships is to search for opportunities. They would also want to return the favour in the future.

9. Target booking yourself to two schools in a day. An ideal combination is middle school and high school. Offer the two schools a good discount professional rate if they are going to book you on the same day. Give additional discounts if they can refer you to other schools before or after the date of your speaking engagement with them.

10. Assist the schools in getting sponsors. These can include local vendors and businesses with the school. You may get in touch as well with local service organizations. You can also offer a free session at their breakfast meeting during a general assembly.

11. Offer the schools a parent program. This is a great way to expose yourself to the parents who are mostly working professionals. This will also reinforce your networks and build your credibility with parents. The best time to schedule a talk with parents is in the evening after your speaking engagement with the students.

12. Ask from activity directors and principals if they can refer you to other schools and colleagues. Tell them if they can write a testimonial letter to serve as your marketing tool.

Motivational speakers have found schools a perfect venue to concentrate on.

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Jan 23 2015

What Are Military Coins?

Published by under Military

Service members treasure their military coins for these coins symbolize their achievements and other great things that are not quite familiar to civilians. These coins have a rich history and they constitute various reasons why service members signed their military service contract in the first place. They were said to have originated in World War I when a solider was captured and stripped off his belongings except for a pouch that contained the first known military coin.

Military coins are known by different names, such as challenge coins, units, commander’s coins, or medallions. But regardless of what it is called, it is always identified by service members due to the insignia that it bears. This coin can be silver, gold, or brass. Whatever it is made of, it embodies patronage and respect for the organization that it represents. A service member can even have his military coin engraved with his personal details.

military coinsThe primary role of a military coin is to represent love and pride for serving the nation. Military coins are especially made for wars, brigades, historic battles, and high political officials. They contain logos and designs that symbolize the situation. For instance, if a member of a military organization is hurt while in battle, the state governor may give him a military coin. Senior military officials give out such coins as awards to boost morale within the unit.

In general, the more coins a person has, the more excellent his service or performance is. These coins also remind military members of the bond that they have shared for years. They represent the strength, sacrifice, honor, and courage they have showed while serving in the military. They are immediate acknowledgements of training exercises or improvements. They are tokens of everlasting memories.

These coins have evolved into more than a representation mark for the military personnel. They are traded among retired, active-duty, and civilian personnel within government agencies. They are also given to special guests and dignitaries to particular locations as a sign of respect and welcome. Some presidents of the United States have minted military coins to present to foreign country diplomats and guests of the White House.

The tradition of military coins has swept over to other organizations. Today, these coins are no longer just used by the military. They are also used in different government sectors and private organizations. Policemen, firemen, and employees of private organizations can be awarded with these coins for their outstanding service or performance. In fact, even you can have these coins. You can order custom challenge coins from the Internet to give away as gifts or party favors.

There are numerous sites online where you can order these coins and have them customized according to your preferences. You can design your own coins and send your designs to the manufacturer. If you do not know much about coin designing, you can seek help from graphic artists. Their talents and services are usually offered by the manufacturers of custom challenge coins. You can even choose from their readily available designs.

Customized coins are ideal as giveaways for birthdays, weddings, and reunions. They make excellent favors that showcase your uniqueness and creativity. If you are a member of a certain organization, you can also order these coins so you will know who the other members are. Choose a design that is exclusive only to your organization so that non-members will not be able to copy it.

Customized coins are not that expensive, so you can order hundreds of them without going over your budget. You can even take advantage of promos and discounts offered by manufacturers of these coins.

Author Bio:

Challengecoins4less offers a full range of options to make your military coins as unique as your unit. Metal color choices include gold, silver, copper, black nickel or brass. Your design can feature no added colors, or color on one or both sides.

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Jan 22 2015

The Research Chemical Industry

Published by under Chemicals

There are legal drugs and illegal drugs, and then there are research chemicals. These are substances intended for use in medical research. They are often distributed online by independent companies. In the field of scientific development, it is inevitable to have human and animal subjects in clinical trials because they are viable recipients for these chemicals. However, the distributor or company holds no responsibility over the subsequent effects of the research chemicals, even though it is inevitable that they will be used on human or animal subjects. They are also not responsible for the misuse of these chemicals.

Research chemicals are not explicitly sold for human and animal consumption therefore no company will be held responsible for any damage. Unlike illegal drugs, all of them can be bought by anyone over 18 years old with an active credit card. These chemicals can be shipped in as fast as 48 hours, depending on the location.

Potential Risk and Dangers

research chemicalsPeople can also order samples of any kind of research chemical. These are for free and the buyer only has to shoulder the shipping and handling fees. Because of the free and wide circulation of these samples, many people risk taking any kind of research chemical orally or intravenously. This action has resulted to deaths or multiple organ damages. The fact that they are called research chemical means that their full effects on the human body are not yet completely known.

The production and distribution of these chemicals are not centralized and controlled by the government therefore they are easily available online. Examples of popular chemicals that have caused controversy are methoxetamine, mephedrone and butylone. It is inevitable that not all of these chemicals will be used for research purposes. Caution must always be implemented. Whatever the case is, always look for a trusted and licensed distributor to ensure high quality chemicals.

Shipping and Customs

When it comes to shipping, customs will always have to sort every incoming parcel. The rules of custom depend from country to country. Each country and even state has their own rules. It is the responsibility of the customs to search and open every parcel that comes into the country. Research chemicals are purely legal, especially in the country of origin. However, when shipped abroad, the country of destination may have different laws. It may be possible that any seemingly harmless research chemical is banned in certain countries.

When the customs realize that a banned substance has been ordered by someone in their country or state of jurisdiction, they will notify the recipients. This can get the addressee into great legal trouble. They can lose their jobs, licenses or businesses. If the worse happens, he should equip himself with a good lawyer and even reformat his laptops or computers used to issue the order. Being caught with an illegal substance, even though it is a perfectly legal research chemical, is a great issue.

Ironically, it is not all the time that the customs check incoming packages. If you order research chemicals and your package is labeled as research chemical and there are specifications that the chemical is not and will not be intended for human use, then the chemical has a chance to be shipped immediately to the buyer without scrutiny. Because the customs tend to handle a lot of packages every day, they sometimes establish certain protocols as to what kind of parcel they will check. These are:

1. Incoming packages weighing more than 1 kilogram.

2. Suspicious packages that lack a return address.

3. Incoming packages with suspicious wrappers and packaging. Examples are packages contained in taped cardboards, packages wrapped in many layers of paper and other so-called “homemade” packaging.

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Jan 21 2015

How to Make Money in Residential Long Island Real Estate

Published by under Real Estate

Many eager Long Island real estate investors are of the mindset that they can easily rake in profits through a bank loan to purchase and renovate local residential properties. Even though investing in real estate is better than investing in the highly volatile stock market because of the local creation of real estate markets that can be grabbed by investors, you need to understand the market comprehensively to successfully earn income through a residential property.


Real EstateAlthough expert real estate investors may generate profits in a volatile national market, the odds may not still favor them, and even more so for new and inexperienced investors. Higher interest rates can further slow down the market because those who already purchased real estate with flexible mortgage now have to pay more to retain their properties while those who have not yet acquired property may no longer be able to afford it. This may result in less demand for real estate and in decreasing prices.


Hence, in starting to build your Long Island real estate portfolio, it is recommended to do it in a falling interest rate market. The loan will be more affordable but the demand is generally higher, thus avoiding a financial crunch that can be maintained with sound financial management.


Another positive indicator in the national setting is a positive gross domestic product (GDP) because it can affect local real estate markets including that of Long Island. Once the country has a strong GDP, there are fewer chances that the real estate market will go down.


With the above factors in mind, you can begin your search for a lucrative local market such as that of Long Island real estate. Try to find an area with robust appreciation potential in connection with other markets. You can consult updated information from the Bureau of Labor Statistics about unemployment rates in an area, since it will help you in evaluating the future health of a local real estate market. Get more about online real estate visit site.


The local unemployment rate is usually a primary indicator of the real estate market. In making a smart investment, be certain that the local area in which you want to purchase residential properties must have a “healthy” unemployment rate. If you are currently living in Long Island, you can easily evaluate the real estate market because of your grasp of local events that are relevant to the residential marketplace. However, with smart real estate investment and management strategies, you can easily invest in real estate in other locations.


The chances for higher profits are apparently better in the real estate market compared to the financial market because real estate is not often traded publicly. Also, knowing the local real estate market is an advantage for any investor. Meanwhile, a long-term purchase-and-hold technique is ideal if you have enough funds and tight market opportunities, and flipping properties is recommended if you have considerable expertise about the local real estate market but have limited investment funds.

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Jan 20 2015

An Everyday Man’s Guide to Buying Golf Equipment

Published by under Sports

Most people, at least those who have no love for the game, do not really have a good idea on how to buy decent, let alone good, golf equipment. It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to buy one, although it does take one to design and make them.

Of course, there are also people at the other end of the spectrum who are simply too afraid to try their hand at the game thinking that buying the equipment will present a tough challenge that they can’t crack.

Buying golf gear will take some time, effort, and study, but it is by no means a massive and insurmountable challenge. All a person really needs to do is devote a little bit of time to study and learn what he can about some of the basics. Learning some of the basic rules when buying golf equipment might seem like a chore, but in the end it will pay off and help a person hit the ground running.

Looking at the proper attire

Callaway GolfOne of the first things people should think about before they even step on the green to play a game of golf is what to wear. Back in the early days of the game, most people who played golf wouldn’t be caught dead wearing some of the things they wore on the golf course.

Nowadays, things have changed and a lot of the golf wear people take to the course can be worn every day. In fact, a lot of people actually enjoy wearing golf clothes off the course.

First off, it has to be a good fit, otherwise there would be no point in wearing it. The next thing to remember about golf attire is the comfort. People who play golf know just how long the game can be and how much walking is involved in getting from one hole to another.

Most golf clothes are breathable so sweating should not be that much of an issue.

Things people ought to remember when buying golf clubs

Golf clubs are probably the most important pieces of golf equipment a golfer can buy. Those who plan to take the sport seriously better invest a lot in their clubs. The clubs are one of the most important factors when it comes to performance.

There are so many different kinds of clubs out there that discussing each and every one would take too much time. Long story short, read up and learn about some of the more important basics in learning how to buy golf clubs.

By far though, the most important thing to take into consideration is the kind of golf club a person should buy. For example, a person should only use a putter for putting and nothing else. Anyone who notices that he has something missing in his set of golf clubs should find out what it is he needs to complete their set.

Taking a look at other pieces of equipment

There are plenty of other pieces of equipment out there that people need to think about.

Rangefinders are devices that golfers use in order to measure their distance from the hole relative to their current position. They are illegal according to some rules, but the USGA permits some golf courses to set local ordinances on whether they should be allowed on the green or not.

Stroke counters are used by players to help keep track of the number of strokes that they’ve made. Simple stroke counters are allowed, but those that incorporate certain features such as range finders or wind gauges are the type of golf equipment that are often banned.

Rock Bottom Golf have plenty of other pieces of equipment out there that people need to think about.

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Jan 17 2015

How to Choose the Best Neck Lanyards

Published by under Product

Neck lanyards are well-known clothing accessories. These items are now widely used by people who belong in various sectors which include athletes, military personnel, students, business owners, and even ordinary citizens. They usually come in a wide variety of styles, colors and designs. You can definitely find an item that best suits your needs if you would just do a little research on the Internet. You can even find the one that will complement the clothes you are wearing. It is essential for you to determine your purpose on using such items before purchasing any product.

Lanyards are also an excellent gift idea for your friends, colleagues and family. You can choose from among different colors including silver, black, white, red and blue. Of course, you have to consider the favorite color of the person whom you will give it to. However, there is a better idea when it comes to taking advantage of these items as a present for your loved ones. The best option for you is to order customized neck lanyards. Your choices are not limited now to the traditional shapes such as circle, square or rectangular badge reel as you can now order even lanyards that have irregularly shaped badge reels. You can even ask your manufacturer to include a name, image or logo on the design of the reel and strap. You have to look for a trustworthy manufacturer so that you can be sure that your every request will be followed strictly.

Neck lanyardsDespite the fact that lanyards are a fantastic gift idea, you will also be pleasantly surprised to find out that they are available for considerably low prices. The best way to take advantage of this low cost is to buy the items in bulk. Hence, if you want to get high quality but affordable neck lanyards for a group employees or students or perhaps sports team, then you should look for a supplier that offers bulk discounts.

There are a number of factors to consider when looking for the best neck lanyard. First of all, you have to identify the design of the item that you think best suits your needs. In this case, the purpose of using such an accessory plays an important role. If you will use the lanyard on a daily basis, then you have to look for highly durable materials. You can choose from among nylon, woven materials or plastic. The strings of lanyards come in two types, which include thick threads or cords. The former type is truly comfortable when worn around the neck even when you are carrying quite heavy items like small tools or cell phone. On the other hand, the latter type is a good option if you want something that is less obtrusive on the neck. In addition, this option usually comes with a rubber tube that serves as a breakaway safety feature. It is also important that you look for the item that offers the perfect fit for you.

Another essential component to consider is the holder of the neck lanyards. These days, you can find a wide variety of holders that include clips, holder straps, hooks and key rings. For example, if you usually carry ID cards or time cards, then the best holder option for you is the clip type. If your cards have holes in them, then you should opt for the one that has a hook or key ring. If you usually put your ID cards or time cards in plastic holders with slits, then the best option is the holder strap lanyard. You also have to consider the weight capacity of the lanyard to choose. If you usually bring with you your cell phone or tools, then you have to look for the lanyards that are engineered from durable materials. The sturdiest material used for the cord is steel.

Neck lanyards are truly cost effective clothing accessories which are not only functional but also stylish. They offer an excellent level of convenience to people who are fond of carrying their small personal items with them.

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